An anal fissure is a cleft/cut in the skin that surrounds excretory opening or anus. Anal fissure is mostly related to disorders of bowel.
Symptoms of Anal Fissure:Patient suffering from anal fissure feels intense pain when passing motions. Itching and bleeding may occur around the anus.
Causes of Anal Fissure: Inappropriate diet resulting in constipation and hard stools is the most common cause of Anal Fissure. Damage of tissue/mucous membrane in most cases results from chronic constipation and hard stools. When patient passes stools the fissure gets reopened and may get infected with faeces.
Treatment of Anal Fissure: Avoiding constipation and keeping stools soft is the most appropriate treatment for Anal Fissure. The patient should try to eat well, drink appropriate amount of water and keep motions regular and soft. To begin the treatment, the patient must begin with five days of fasting on raw juices. During fast, the patient must consume 1 glass of juice ( mixed with water in 50:50 proportion) every two hours between 8am and 8pm. Fresh juices of Sweet Lime (Mosambi), orange, pineapple and carrot are recommended. For cleansing bowel, warm water enema is also recommended.
Once the juice fast period is over, the patient may adopt a fruit diet for next five days. Fresh juicy fruits such as orange, pineapple, pear, apple, peach, papaya and grapes should be taken every 5 hours. Fruits such as pears and grapes are very effective in treating constipation and should be taken liberally by the patient. Most fruits, other than banana and jackfruit, are good for constipation. Once fruits fast is over, the patient could resume normal regime of a well-balanced diet.
The patient should strive to take a simple diet containing whole grain cereals, honey, green leafy vegetables, lentils, beans, tomatoes, onion, cabbage, pumpkin, beets and carrot. Fresh fruits such as figs, pears, grapes, papaya, mangoes, gooseberries, grapefruits, oranges and dry fruits such as figs, apricots, raisins and dates are also very effective. The patient should avoid sugar and sugar rich foods as sugar takes away vitamin B from the body. Vitamin B is essential for normal functioning of intestine. To avoid constipation patient should stay away from products made with white floor (maida), cakes, pastries and biscuits.
Application of approx. 60 grams of olive oil in the rectum will also be beneficial as it will soften stools. If required, this instillation should be done everyday. Consuming adequate water is essential in condition of constipation and helps in cleansing system. However, water should not be taken with meals as it dilutes gastric juices which help in digestion. Water must be taken atleast 30 minutes before taking food or atleast one hour after meals.
The affected part should be bathed many times in a day with hot and cold fomentations. Linen should be wrung out in hot water and applied for 2/3 minutes. This must be repeated three times and followed by one cold application. Yoga and other exercises are also beneficial in constipation. Pavanmuktasana, Vajrasan, Shalabhasana, bhujangasana are few asanas helpful in treatment of constipation.